Human beings in this world perform a lot of actions in their daily life. These actions are based on their understanding, reasoning and thinking. Similarly, in AI, Knowledge Representation and Reasoning is applied to help machines perform reasoning and execution.
It is the study of how the beliefs, aims and judgments can be used to provide reasoning. It includes the process of understanding, designing and executing. Therefore, representing information in computers. The programs can use this information to work, learn, think and behave like a human being.
Knowledge Representation includes findings from psychology about how humans solve problems. Likewise, it also includes findings from logic to gain answers, such as in mathematics. In the real world, knowledge plays a very important role in intelligence as well as creating artificial intelligence. The AI system may act suitably on any input if it has the knowledge or experience on said input.
With the help of the information provided from the outside world, the computer derives its own information in the form of reasoning. This information will be used to solve complex real-life problems, make reasons and gain more new knowledge. Knowledge representation is useless without the ability of reasoning with them.
One of the main purpose to represent knowledge is to be able to reason with the knowledge. Therefore, knowledge Representation goes hand in hand with automated reasoning.
AI knowledge cycle
An AI system has the following components to display intelligent behavior:
- Perception- Connecting with the real world and receiving information from its surroundings.
- Learning- This component is responsible for learning from the data received from the Perception component.
- Knowledge Representation and Reasoning- is involved in showing the intelligence. These two components are independent yet coupled together.
The planning and execution depend on analysis of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning.
The knowledge which should be included in AI are objects, events, performance, meta-knowledge, etc.
- Objects – The facts of anything in the world. For example, lets take a musical instrument. The color of the instrument is the object.
- Events – Anything that occurs in the world. For example, the musical instrument being played.
- Performance – It describes behavior which involves knowledge on how to do things. For example, the musical instrument played in any way.
- Meta-knowledge – What we know.
In solving problems in AI, we must include knowledge as information in two ways:
- Facts – The truths about the world and what it represents. It could be anything from the way it is to how it works.
- Representation of the facts – The information which we manipulate and produce.
For an AI system to work as humans, we need to give data in a knowledge base and a reasoning engine. The knowledge base contains facts and general knowledge about any particular things in the world. On the other hand, a reasoning engine produces and derives consequences and results from the data already in the knowledge base.
Applications of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning
- Micro-controllers, micro-processors
- Air-conditioners, elevators
- Search engines
- Digital image processing
- AI agents for games
- Language filters and mobile keyboards
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